The Saamritans may be the closest
of all the inhabitants of the Yeshuv to the popuation from the pre-babylonian exile.
There is a theory that when the big city Yidden from Babylon came back to Jerusalem after Cyrus made that possible, the indigenes had continued the religion and culture. The priesthood of Jerusalem, trained in the ways of empire, saw them as a threat to the supremacy of Jerusalem.
If true, these may be close o the original Judaism.